CREATE A PROFILE: Television / Video

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In today's media landscape, most consumers don't differentiate between programming viewed on broadcast, cable, ADS-delivered, and online or mobile channels.  It's all considered "TV viewing" and the positives, opportunities and challenges apply to "video" across the board:

  • TV set penetration in U.S. households is high 
    • According to Nielsen, there are 123.8MM TV homes in the U.S. for the 2022-2023 TV season.

(Source: Nielsen, National Television Household Universe Estimates)

  • 69% of U.S. TV viewers have used free streaming services at least monthly.

(Source: Horowitz Research’s State of Media, Entertainment & Tech: Subscriptions study, 2023 Edition)

  • 52% of content viewers now report subscribing to pay TV services.

(Source: Horowitz Research’s State of Media, Entertainment & Tech: Subscriptions study, 2023 Edition)

  • 32% of subscribers also said that they might consider going back to cable if the cost of their streaming services increases.

(Source: Horowitz Research’s State of Media, Entertainment & Tech: Subscriptions study, 2023 Edition)

  • As of January 2023, 85% of households had at least one TV-connected device.

(Source: Nielsen National TV Panel, 2023)

  • As of January 2023, 36% of U.S. TV Households accessed their TV content solely through a broadband internet connection.

(Source: Nielsen National TV Panel via NPOWER, 2023)

  • 70% of consumers currently use streaming TV services.

(Source: Valassis consumer survey conducted February 2021)

  • 64% of consumers use their mobile device or tablet to browse or shop online while watching TV from another device.

(Source: Valassis consumer survey conducted February 2021)

  • 82% of parents browse and shop online while streaming TV.

(Source: Valassis consumer survey conducted February 2021)

  • 34% of consumers have made a purchase based on a TV ad.

(Source: Valassis consumer survey conducted February 2021)

  • 67% of U.S. Adults ages 18-49 watch both linear TV and ad-supported streaming.

(Source: "Addressable Enters the mainstream" DirectTV Advertising via Advertiser Perceptions, January 2023)

  • 15% of U.S. Adults ages 18-49 watch ONLY ad-supported streaming.

(Source: "Addressable Enters the mainstream" DirectTV Advertising via Advertiser Perceptions, January 2023)

  • 90% of CTV buyers purchased linear TV in 2022.

(Source: "Addressable Enters the mainstream" DirectTV Advertising via Advertiser Perceptions, January 2023)

  • 36% of of CTV buyers say linear TV is more important than CTV.

(Source: "Addressable Enters the mainstream" DirectTV Advertising via Advertiser Perceptions, January 2023)

  • Half of TV viewers who consume the most linear TV saw 92% of TV ad impressions in the first-half of 2023, while the other half saw just 8% of impressions.

(Source: SambaTV 2023 State of Viewership)

  • Linear TV's daily reach rose to 58 million during the first half of 2023, compared to the second half of 2022 (54 million).

(Source: SambaTV 2023 State of Viewership)

  • According to Pixalate, 98% of U.S. internet-connected households can be reached by CTV advertising - up from 92% in Q1 2022.

(Source: Pixalate, CTV Ad Supply Trends Report - Q1 2023)

  • Time Shifted TV reaches 61% of persons ages 18-49 weekly in 2023.

(Source: Nielsen Total Audience Report, Q2 2018, Q2 2019, Q2 2020, Q2 2021, Q2 2022, Q2 2023)

  • 6.9% of daily audio time among those age 13+ in the U.S. is spent listening on an internet-connected TV or TV device.

(Source: Edison Research, "Share of Ear," 2016 - Q3 2023)

  • 74% of consumers said they plan to make no changes to their paid television habits.

(Source: Nielsen 2023 Consumer Survey Report)

  • 76% of consumers said they will not change their TV streaming services subscriptions in the next 6-12 months.

(Source: Nielsen 2023 Consumer Survey Report)

  • 56% of consumers say that they enjoy the content provided by paid television.

(Source: Nielsen 2023 Consumer Survey Report)

  • 57% of consumers say that they enjoy the content provided by television and live streaming services.

(Source: Nielsen 2023 Consumer Survey Report)

  • 20% of U.S. internet households own a television antenna.

(Source: ATSC 3.0: Impact and Opportunity for video services, Q4 2023)

  • 12% of U.S. internet households don't don't have an antenna but plan to purchase one in the next 6 months.

(Source: ATSC 3.0: Impact and Opportunity for video services, Q4 2023)

  • TV antenna owners report watching about 6.4 hours of over-the-air (OTA) programming per week, second only to subscription-based video-on-demand streaming (7.6 hours per week).

(Source: Parks Associate Research, December 2023)

  • Preferred types of content for TV Antenna owners:
    • Live News - 29%
    • Live sports - 20%
    • Shows and movies - 18%

(Source: Parks Associate Research, December 2023)

  • What Americans watch when they turn on the TV in 2023:
    • 46% watch LiveTV
    • 40% watch online streaming TV

(Source: Hub Entertainment Research, 2023)

  • 60% of Gen Zers believe that CTV has better quality ads than cable/satellite.
    • 56% of Millennials believe the same

(Source: Magna Media Trials and Samsung Ads, Capturing the Attention of our Youngest Generations, The Digital Advertisers’ Guide to Reaching Gen Z + Millennials on Connected TV, 2023)

  • 61% of Gen Zers believe that CTV has ads that are more relevant to them than cable/satellite.
    • 67% of Millennials believe the same.

(Source: Magna Media Trials and Samsung Ads, Capturing the Attention of our Youngest Generations, The Digital Advertisers’ Guide to Reaching Gen Z + Millennials on Connected TV, 2023)

  • U.S. TV and Connected TV (CTV) ad spending in 2023 (Billions):
    • U.S. TV - $61.31B
    • CTV - $25.03B

(Source: eMarketer, April 2023)

  • U.S. CTV Revenues by Company (Billions):
    • Hulu - $3.63B
    • YouTube - $2.89B
    • Roku - $2.19B
    • PlutoTV - $.95B
    • Peacock - $.81B
    • Tubi - $.77B
    • Disney+ - $.75B
    • Netflix - $.62B
    • Paramount - $.28B

(Source: Insider Inteligence, April 2023, eMarketer, Guggenheim Securities)

  • Top 5 most used paid video streaming services:
    • Netflix
    • Amazon Prime Video
    • HBO Max
    • Hulu
    • YouTube TV

(Source: Forbes Home Survey, March 2023)

U.S. adults are spending a lot of time consuming video in some form or fashion.

  • In Q4 2022 A18+ weekly hours spent with media:
    • AM/FM Radio: 11.5 Hours
    • App/Web on Smartphone: 1 Hours
    • Live + Time-shifted TV: 28.4 Hours
    • App/Web on Tablet: 8.7 Hours
    • TV-Connected Devices: 15.5 Hours
    • Internet on a PC: 7.4 Hours

(Source: The Nielsen Audience Insights Q4 2022, among users P18+)

  • Daily time spent on TV amongst U.S. adults 18+ in Q4 2022:
    • TV-Connected devices - 106 minutes
    • Cable - 104 minutes
    • Broadcast - 84 minutes

(Source: Nielsen National TV Panel, 2023)

  • Where Asian American audiences spend most of their TV time:
    • Streaming - 43%
    • Cable - 23%
    • Broadcast - 19%
    • Other - 16%

(Source: Analysis of January 2023 Nielsen National TV Panel Data augmented by Streaming Platform ratings)

  • Asian American audiences watch 27% more streaming content than the general opoulation.

(Source: Analysis of January 2023 Nielsen National TV Panel Data augmented by Streaming Platform ratings)

  • Percentage (%) of time spent with live and time-shifted TV 2022-2023 (Hispanics):
    • P18-34 - 28.1%
    • P35-49 - 43.2%
    • P50-64 - 64.1%

    (Source: Nielsen National TV Panel, Q1 2023)

  • Percentage (%) of time spent with connected TV (Hispanics):
    • P18-34 - 71.7%
    • P35-49 - 56.8%
    • P50-64 - 35.9%

    (Source: Nielsen National TV Panel, Q1 2023)

    • 74% of Hispanics say they use one or more streaming services in a day in a typical week.

    (Source: Nielsen Attitudes on Representation Supplemental Study, 2022)

    • Where Hispanic audiences spend most of their TV time:
      • Streaming - 50.7%
      • Broadcast - 18.8%
      • Cable - 16.2%
      • Other - 14.3%

    (Source: Nielsen National TV Panel and Streaming Platform ratings, July 2023)

    • How Hispanics find representative programming that they enjoy watching:
      • Recommendations from friends/family - 67%
      • Recommendations from the platform - 48%
      • Trailers/Promotional videos - 45%
      • Entertainment news/reviews - 36%
      • Buzz on social media - 28%
      • Collections for themed programming - 28%
      • Marketing from the platform - 25%

    (Source: Nielsen Attitudes on Representation in Media Supplemental Study, 2022)

    • Genres that Hispanics find the most representative:
      • Drama - 53%
      • Feature Films - 49%
      • Comedy - 45%
      • Documentaries - 39%
      • Animation - 33%
      • Information or news - 25%
      • Romance - 20%
      • Variety Programs - 19%
      • Sports - 18%

    (Source: Nielsen Attitudes on Representation in Media Supplemental Study, 2022)

    • Hispanics who believe that their values are largely shared and reflected in popular TV shows and movies (by generation):
      • Gen Z (age 18-36) - 56%
      • Millennials (age 27-42) - 63%
      • Gen Xers (age 43-58) - 42%
      • Boomers (age 59-77) - 29%
      • Matures (age 78+) - 23%

    (Source: 2023 Hispanic Sentiment Study by We Are All Human and Nielsen, Powered by Toluna)

    • Importance of watching TV in their native language:
      • 78.8% of Korean respondents say that it is very important/important.
      • 70.8% of Chinese respondents say that it is very important/important
      • 80.6% of Vietnamese respondents say that it is very important/important.
      • 90% of English respondents say that it is very important/important.

    (Source: Nielsen, Custom Asian Media Consumption Study, Fall 2022)

    • 27% of AANHPI audiences agree that representative content is more engaging when it features a geographic location associated with their identity group(s).

    (Source: Nielsen Attitudes on Representation Supplemental Study, 2022)

    • 30% of AANHPI audiences agree that representative content is more engaging when it features a cast member that is closely associated with their identity group(s).

    (Source: Nielsen Attitudes on Representation Supplemental Study, 2022)

    • 56% of Hispanics say they are more likely to continue watching content when it features someone from their identity group.

    (Source: Nielsen Attitudes on Representation TV Study, April 2022)

    • In 2022, CTV generated 50% of engagement and video impressions.

    (Source: Innovid Retail (Ad) Therapy Report)

    • According to a survey, the average TV consumer uses 7.4 TV sources in their home.
      • TV sources range from traditional pay-TV, SVOD's, antenna TV's etc. 

    (Source: Hub Entertainment, May 2022)

    Generations that watch tv shows and movies from home (%):

    • Generation Z – 10%
    • Millennials – 18%
    • Generation X – 29%
    • Boomers - 39%

    (Source: Deloitte, Digital media trends, 15th edition, 2021)

    Video completion rate by video format:

    • Interactive video (CTV) – 92.7%
    • Standard Video – 86.2%
    • Interactive video (Mobile/Desktop) – 82%
    • Dynamic Video - 74.3%

    (Source: Innovid Retail (Ad) Therapy Report)

    • Households without cable who primarily use broadband connections to stream will rise from 23.3 million is 2018 to 40.8 million in 2022.
      • By 2023, broadband is expected to be in 75% of U.S. households.

    (Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence - Kagan media research unit)

    Percentage on different generations consuming news on Network/Cable TV news:

    • Generation Z – 12%
    • Millennials – 16%
    • Generation X – 34%
    • Boomers - 58%

    (Source: Deloitte, Digital media trends, 15th edition, 2021)

    • % of Population weekly reach (Live + Time Shifted TV):
      • A18+: 76%
      • Blacks 18+: 79%
      • Hispanics 18+: 70%

    (Source: Nielsen Audience Insights Q4 2022 (users among population) Hispanics 18+)

    • Digital video usage by device in 2022:
      • Smartphone - 66%
      • Smart TV - 58%
      • Laptop - 41%
      • Tablet - 35%
      • Streaming Device - 33%
      • Gaming Console - 24%
      • Desktop/PC - 23%
      • Don't Know - 1%

    (Source: Statista Global Consumer Survey, 2022) 

    • Share of households subscribing to selected video streaming platforms in the U.S.:
      • Netflix - 66%
      • Amazon Prime Video - 56%
      • Hulu - 42%
      • Disney+ - 41%
      • HBO Max - 29%
      • Paramount+ - 17%

    (Source: Research Initiatives, Fall 2022)

    • Video streaming distribution by brand:
      • Netflix: 22%
      • YouTube: 20%
      • Hulu: 11%
      • Amazon: 8%
      • Disney+: 6%
      • Other: 33% 
    • Streaming video share of time spent by age:
      • P2-11: 13%
      • P12-17: 5%
      • P18-24 6%
      • P25-34: 15%
      • P35-54: 31%
      • P55+: 31%

    (Source: The Nielsen Audience Insights April 2022)

    • People who cancel then renew their paid streaming video services, by generation (%):
      • Generation Z – 35%
      • Millennials – 38%
      • Generation X – 28%
      • Boomers – 7%

    (Source: Deloitte, Digital media trends, 16th edition, March 2022)

    • CTV Challenges per advertiser:
      • Difficulty managing ad frequency across publishers platforms – 41%
      • Reach and scale to target effectively – 37%
      • Fragmentation/too many providers – 37%
      • Transparency on where your ads are running – 36%
      • Disparate reporting across multiple buys – 34%
      • Cost – 33%
      • Inconsistent measurement standards – 30%
      • Ad fraud – 29%
      • Brand safety concerns – 24%
      • Multiple ad buys to attain reach and frequency – 21%

    (Source: Advertiser Perceptions survey for Premion, March 2023)

    • Reasons for advertisers increasing CTV budget 2023 (audience/targeting related):
      • Captures declining TV audiences – 46%
      • Provides the benefits of TV with digital capabilities – 44%
      • Extended reach for Linear TV budgets – 37%
      • Precision audience targeting – 35%
      • Reaches a highly engaged opt-in audience – 30%
      • Solution to mobile/desktop privacy changes – 22%

    (Source: Advertiser Perceptions survey for Premion, March 2023)

    • Reasons for advertisers increasing CTV budget 2023 (Performance/pricing related):
      • Archives brand awareness & performance marketing goals – 39%
      • Affordable TV options for performance driven digital marketers – 36%
      • CTV tends to outperform Linear TV – 33%
      • Detailed reporting, measuring, and insights – 23%
      • Improved and relevance – 23%
      • Attribution capabilities – 21%
      • Shorter ad pods provide better exposure for my brand(s) – 16%

    (Source: Advertiser Perceptions survey for Premion, March 2023)

    • Top reasons why consumers canceled a streaming video service:
      • I wasn't spending enough time with the service to justify the cost – 35%
      • I need to cut back on my cost of entertainment – 30%
      • The streaming service raised its price – 25%
      • There is not enough new content on the service – 24%
      • I finished watching a show/movie that I signed up to watch – 22%
      • There's another service I wanted to sign up for instead – 21%
      • I didn't enjoy the content on the service – 20%

    (Source: DIRECTV Advertising via Suzy, Online survey of nationally representative sample of 1k U.S. Adults (18-65), June 23, 2023)

    • Top three reasons why consumers would consider resubscribing to streaming video services:
      • The service decreased their price or offered a promotion – 50%
      • The service adds more new programming that I want to watch – 35%
      • The service puts out a new season of the show/sequel to a movie I initially signed up to watch – 26%

    (Source: DIRECTV Advertising via Suzy, Online survey of nationally representative sample of 1k U.S. Adults (18-65), June 23, 2023)

    • Only 25% of U.S. consumers think they’ll have a cable subscription within a few years:
      • 41% are not subscribed or have already cut cable
      • 12.5% will cut cable within the next few years
      • 11.2% will cut cable within the next 3 months
      • 9.9% will cut cable within this year
    • Within the year, these specific age groups will plan on unsubscribing to cable:
      • 18-34 – 25.9%
      • 25-34 – 17.8%
      • 35-44 – 18.2%
      • 45-54 – 14%
      • 55-64 – 18.6%
      • 65+ - 9.9%

    (Source: Pixability; U.S. Consumer Streaming Habits on YouTube & CTV, 2022)

    • 87% percent of households have at least one internet-connected TV device - up from 24% in 2010.
    • 66% of all TV households have multiple types of connected TV devices.
    • Devices adults use to watch videos:
      • 28% of adults watch video on a TV via a stand-alone device.
      • 27% via an Internet-enabled Smart TV app.
      • 12% via a connected game system.
      • 3% via a connected Blu-ray player.

    (Source: Leichtman Research Group, Q2 2022 report)

    Adults are cutting the cords for cable as streaming services are becoming increasingly popular.

    • Reasons for not subscribing to cable or satellite TV:
      • 71% of adults said they can access the content they want to watch online
      • 69% of adults said the cost of cable/satellite services is too expensive
      • 45% said they do not watch TV often

    (Source: Pew Research Center, 2021)

    • 82% of consumers subscribe to a paid streaming service

    (Source: Deloitte, Digital media trends, 15th edition, 2021)

    As of February 2022, there were 817K unique program titles across linear TV and streaming video services.

    • 169.4B minutes were spent on streaming.
    • Video streaming distribution percent by brand: 22% Netflix, 20% YouTube, 11% Hulu, 8% Amazon, 6% Disney+, and 33% Other.

    Top 5 attributes of video streaming sources (ranked by importance):

    • Cost – 81%
    • Variety/availability of content – 79%
    • Ease of use – 79%
    • Streaming/playback quality – 76%
    • Accessibility/search of desired content – 72%

    (Source: Nielsen Audience Insights, April 2022)

    Ads on streaming video services, based off on engagement:

    • Generation Z – 18%
    • Millennials – 18%
    • Boomers – 14%
    • Generation X – 13%

    (Source: Deloitte, Digital media trends, 15th edition, 2021)

    Ads-supported plan share of new sign-ups for major SVODs, YTD through May 2023:

    • Peacock – 69%
    • Hulu – 58%
    • Discovery+ – 43%
    • Disney+ – 36%
    • Paramount+ – 31%
    • Max – 21%
    • Netflix – 18%

    (Source: Antenna, June 2023)

    Percentage of monthly spending on subscription by age:

    • Ages 18-34 – 20%
    • Ages 35-54 – 19%
    • Ages 55-64 – 11%

    (Source: National Research Group, October 2022)

    Percentage of U.S. households that do not have a television set by age:

    • Ages 18-34 – 14%
    • Ages 35-54 – 5%
    • Ages 55+ – 3%

    (Source: Research Initiatives, Fall 2022)

    Top-grossing CTV apps in Q1 2023 (in order):

    • On Roku:
      • Hulu
      • Philo
      • Tubi
      • Pluto TV
      • Sling
    • On Amazon Fire TV:
      • Philo
      • Tubi
      • Pluto TV
      • Hulu
      • Sling

    (Source: Pixalate, CTV Ad Supply Trends Report - Q1 2023)

  • About 37 million U.S. internet households use at least one ad-supported streaming service now.
  • (Source: Parks Associates, Q1 2022)

  • 23% of U.S. users of ad-supported over-the-top streaming services report that they “often” click on ads.
    • The same percentage report that they often buy products or services they see advertised.

    (Source: Parks Associates, Q1 2022)

    • Among consumers with at least one subscription, 57% have taken advantage of a bundle deal (with Disney+, Hulu & ESPN, T-Mobile & Netflix, and Hulu & HBO Max proving the most popular packages).

    (Source: National Research Group, October 2022)

    • The U.S. currently accounts for nearly 90% of global FAST (Free ad-supported Streaming TV) market Value.

    (Source: Omdia Advertising Intelligence Service, 2023)

    • Internet and mobile platforms allow for TV everywhere, but adaption percentages are still low
    • Expanded digital viewing will be advantageous to advertisers, allowing exposure closer to point of purchase
    • The mass reach once afforded by advertising on broadcast TV networks has declined due to:
      • Access to multiple TV sets/screens within homes
        • TV used to be a group activity with everyone in the household gathered in front of the TV
        • Multiple sets/multiple screen options have transformed viewing into a more solitary, singular activity
    • Digital-only platforms such as Hulu, Netflix, etc. have drawn viewers from broadcast, cable, ADS
    • Video on Demand (VOD) options growing, gaining awareness among consumers
    • Consumers no longer need to make an "appointment" to watch their favorite shows
      • Prime-time programs recorded for later viewing, binge-viewing
      • Time-shifting of programs challenges advertisers placing time-sensitive commercials
      • Consumers may delete or skip over commercials in recorded programming

    Key Links to additional information on Television:

    For data on cable penetration, ADS for specific DMAs:

    For data on specific cable carriers within major markets:

    Total TV/Video Advertising Advantages

    • Is deliverable 24/7
    • Combines all the elements of sound, sight and motion to deliver a powerful impact on the senses
    • Is intrusive, comes directly to the viewer for immediate impact
    • Can be placed in a programming environment that complements the brand or retailer's business or message
    • Allows for repetition of messaging with a defined timespan
    • Exclusivity of product category is usually available at a price
    • May reach consumers who tend not to access any other form of media
    • Has largely moved away from seasonal viewing shifts as networks rose to challenges presented by independent stations and cable over the years, creating more program options and rolling out first-run programming even during summer months.  Nielsen trends now indicate that peaks in winter months and valleys in summertime have leveled off to relatively flat year-round ratings.
    • Growing use of alternate video devices (computer, tablet, streaming services) creates an opportunity
    • VOD (Video on Demand) opens growth area for consumer usage and awareness

    Network TV Advantages

    • Reaches virtually all U.S. markets, households
    • Broad reach allows for fairly rapid cume build across a schedule
    • Network programming is available in most dayparts
    • Time buying and post-buy analysis are relatively easy compared to other TV platforms
    • Attractive, high-visibility sponsorships are available
    • Nets and program producers are increasingly offering product placement and digital sponsorship deals
    • Pricing for short commercials is fair
    • Primetime hours are relatively uncluttered with commercials.  Clutter rates had risen earlier in this decade but have stabilized more recently
    • Upfront audience delivery guaranteed on broad demographics
    • Audience research through Nielsen's PeopleMeter provides a degree of precision in data compared to most other media
    • Nielsen's commercial ratings give advertisers an ad-relevant overview

    Local Spot TV Advantages

    • For local market advertisers, the small number of local channels makes selecting programming and buying time relatively easy
    • Advertisers can usually buy time in any daypart
    • Geo-targeting capabilities are available
    • Local TV stations offer community sponsorships and location-based opportunities to drive traffic to retail locations
    • Short ad units (:15s) are accepted by most local stations, unlike on network TV
    • Nielsen to intro new product-use interface with local TV ratings

    Syndicated TV Advantages

    • Buying and tracking is simple, much like broadcast networks
    • CPMs are usually lower than broadcast nets' – but higher than cable
    • Guaranteed CPM delivery for upfront buys, similar to network TV
    • National breaks have less clutter (and less zapping)
    • Syndication audiences may be the most ad receptive of any TV platform
    • Certain syndication formats (dating shows, sitcoms) are effective at targeting younger audiences

    Satellite TV Advantages

    • Satellite TV delivers programming via communication satellites and is received by an outdoor antenna, typically a parabolic reflector called a satellite dish.
    • Satellite TV is available anywhere that a dish can be installed to face south, whereas consumers must live within an area served by a cable provider in order to access service. Satellite is the only option in many rural areas.
    • Satellite and cable TV frequently offer the same channels (including premium channels such as HBO and Showtime), but satellite TV's basic package (approximately 200 channels) is equivalent to a premium cable package, making satellite the better value-for-dollar option.
    Ad-Supported Cable TV Advantages
    • The Internet & Televison Association projects that there are 72.2 million total cable TV subscriptions in the U.S.
    • Geographic targeting is easily accommodated
    • Unlike Broadcast TV Networks, cable nets have programming available in all dayparts
    • Ratings have risen over the years as viewers migrated from broadcast TV platforms
    • Many channels afford niche programming with targeted demographics and psychographic attributes
    • All age groups now spend more time with cable than broadcast TV, with younger consumers spending significantly more time.
    • Highly affordable, with low CPM
    • Fair pricing for short commercials
    • Product integration opportunities available to advertisers
    • Precise audience available through Nielsen PeopleMeter measurement, similar to broadcast networks
    • Cable now reaches approximately 9 out of 10 Americans

    Ad-Supported Cable TV Disadvantages
    • Full-market coverage is only available in I+ markets; advertisers must supplement with ADS (satellite/telcos) to achieve full-market saturation
    • Bundling – or the packaging of multiple channels by cable access providers – forces consumers to pay for channels they don't watch
    • Due to rising costs of subscriptions and increasing availability of other video options, more and more consumer are "pulling the plug" on cable services
    • Approximately 13.6% of U.S. households only have access to broadcast TV, not cable
    • While excellent programming is abundant, cable also fills a lot of air-time with reruns
    • The large – and growing – number of cable channels creates a high degree of audience fragmentation, resulting in lower program ratings in general
    • Number of channels makes buying difficult, placing commercials, tracking makegoods, doing post-analysis is time cumbersome and time consuming
    • Clutter is a major issue on some channels, leading to even more avoidance than on broadcast TV
    • Commercials give cable a downscale image
      • Glut of infomercials aired in late night and early morning
      • Poorly produced "local" spots may surround your well-executed spot
    • Nielsen data on smaller cable channels, especially digital channels, is limited due to sample size issues
    • Digital services such as Netflix pose a threat to cable and broadcast as the offer on-demand viewing, original content
    • The top 7 cable companies lost an estimated 1,915,000 subscribers in 2020 (Source: Leichtman Research Group, 2020)

    Total TV/Video Advertising Disadvantages

    • Is expensive to produce and to buy
    • Prime placement may not be available due to limited avails within the most popular programs
    • May be less demographically selective as other media forms, although cable TV options may be more focused
    • Is typically cluttered, so spots may be placed deep within a string of commercials.  Viewers may head to the fridge during long commercial breaks, or switch channels.  Messaging may get lost in the shuffle, long-term recall may be lost.
    • May be fast-forwarded if program is recorded for later viewing
    • Increased use of social media in conjunction with TV-viewing may diminish or eliminate any attention to advertising messages aired
    • Over 70% of adults feel that broadcast TV, cable/satellite TV has too many ads (Source: Nielsen 2023 Consumer Survey Report)
    Network TV Disadvantages
    • Ratings have eroded considerable with the growth of cable viewing and increased competition from various digital media
    • Viewer loyalty has declined due to excessive stunting, schedule changes and program preemptions
    • Audiences are increasingly older, more downscale as younger consumers move to other platforms
    • Primetime is no longer the ultimate vehicle to reach mass audiences. Between 20-25% of the population is not reached weekly by combined ABC/CBS/NBC/Fox prime
    • Ad exposure and impact have declined based on increased clutter, dial switching and ad skipping via DVRs
    • No capacity to target specific areas within a given market
    • Expensive – Highest CPM of any form of TV
    • High commercial production costs
    • While Nielsen's TV are superior to other media research, challenges remain re sample balancing, editing rules and measurement of new forms of transmission
    Local Spot TV Disadvantages
    • Stations don't guarantee spot placement unless fixed-position premium is paid; buys may be preempted for higher rate schedules
    • Programming varies throughout the day, so zeroing-in on a specific target audience group can be a challenge on local TV
    • Many stations get help from their networks to hype Nielsen "sweep" period ratings
    • CPMs are usually comparable to broadcast TV networks/syndication for the same dayparts, but are not formally guaranteed.  While bonus spots or makegoods may be given, their timing and program typing may not be appropriate.
    • Nielsen audience samples for local markets are very basic in comparison to network research – small samples, slow reporting, minimal ethnic data
    • Targeting selective consumer demographics is problem with only broad sex/age ratings data available
    • For multi-market advertisers, negotiating and buying on a market-by-market basis is tedious and difficult
    • Post-buy accounting can be very difficult
    Syndicated TV Disadvantages
    • Limited availability, not distributed across all dayparts
    • Upscale demographics, males are difficult to target
    • Limited program range versus broadcast networks, cable
      • Sports programming, fare aimed at kids is scarce to non-existent
      • Genres such as talk, court shows, sitcoms oversaturated
    Satellite TV Disadvantages
    • Satellite TV services, like cable providers, are experiencing declines in subscribers as consumers migrate to online streaming services. 
    • Satellite TV providers lost about 2.36MM subscribers in 2018 compared to a loss of around 1.55MM subscribers in 2017
    • DIRECTV lost 1.23MM subscribers in 2018 compared to a loss of 554K subscribers in 2017
    • Dish also took a hit with a loss of 1.13MM subscribers in 2018. (Source: Leichtman Research Group, 2019)

    Television / Video Plus Radio

    • Reach: Radio reaches more people every week than any other medium, including TV. Adding radio to a television schedule can bolster the number of different persons who will be exposed to an advertising message
    Local: Most AM/FM radio programming is local (or is perceived as local by consumers). This establishes a personal connection with the consumer that cannot be matched by network TV or cable programming
    Share of Media Time: The amount of time consumers spend with radio has remained constant over the past years despite the increase in media and entertainment options. Innovations in technology have only expanded radio's share of media - across devices and platforms
    Emotional Connections: Radio establishes an emotional connection with listeners, lending credibility to ad messages aired. This is especially true when on-air personalities deliver the message or endorse products or services. Utilizing radio in this way can bolster the impact of a more generic television ad schedule
    Commercial Acceptance: Radio listeners are receptive to commercial messages they hear on their favorite stations. 63% of adults occasionally/never skip radio ads unlike broadcast TV (51%) and cable/satellite TV (49%) who always or do most of the time. (Source: Nielsen 2023 Consumer Survey Report)
    Environment: Radio is relatively uncluttered compared to television, especially versus local TV stations and cable. Even if viewers stay tuned during commercial breaks on TV, messages aired in long pods not register, or may become lost to memory by the end of the pod; and competitive advertisers may find their spots placed directly adjacent to each other Many of the spots aired on TV/cable are poorly produced and irritating to the viewer; a well-produced spot will be aired in the same break. Radio spots can jog the memory of TV/cable viewers who may not clearly recall ads they had been exposed to
    Cost: Good radio advertising is inexpensive to produce in relation to TV/cable production costs. Creative for the same product can be tailored to appeal to a distinct consumer audience within a unique format such as Country, Talk, Urban, etc.
    Speed: The time to create a radio spot, produce it and get it on the air is shorter than the time to get a good TV/cable spot ready for airing. Radio can be the advance team for messaging that needs to get out quickly, or for timed sales or events
    Imagery Transfer: Radio can boost a TV/cable advertiser's message through imagery transfer or theater of the mind. Numerous research studies over the years have proven that radio listeners visualize images from a TV ad when they hear that advertiser's same or similar message on the radio, reinforcing the impact of the TV ad schedule. Additionally, as numerous advertisers incorporate sonic branding, radio helps to trigger brand recall through sonic branding
    Mobility: TV has become more mobile due to the capability to access on computers, tablets, and mobile phones – but the fact remains that the majority of TV viewing still takes place at home. TV advertisers can employ radio's high in-car, at-work and on-the-go tune-in to extend their messaging to listeners who are out of home and closer to the point of purchase
    Recall: Numerous studies point to radio's ability to drive brand recall and awareness. Radio when used in conjunction with other media, can also improve and increase recall, awareness and drive traffic

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